Geophysics

2017-2018

Program Description

Founded in 1926, the Department of Geophysics at the Colorado School of Mines is recognized and respected around the world for its programs in applied geophysical research and education. With nearly 20 active faculty and smaller class sizes, students receive individualized attention in a close-knit department. The mission of the geophysical engineering program is to educate undergraduates in the application of geophysics to help meet global needs for energy, water, food, minerals, and the mitigation of natural hazards by exploring and illuminating the dynamic processes of the Earth, oceans, atmosphere and solar system.

Geophysicists study the Earth’s interior through physical measurements collected at the Earth’s surface, in boreholes, from aircraft, or from satellites. Using a combination of mathematics, physics, geology, chemistry, hydrology, and computer science, both geophysicists and geophysical engineers analyze these measurements to infer properties and processes within the Earth’s complex interior. Noninvasive imaging beneath the surface of Earth and other planets by geophysicists is analogous to noninvasive imaging of the interior of the human body by medical specialists.

The Earth supplies all materials needed by our society, serves as the repository for used products, and provides a home to all its inhabitants. Geophysics and geophysical engineering have important roles to play in the solution of challenging problems facing the inhabitants of this planet, such as providing fresh water, food, and energy for Earth’s growing population, evaluating sites for underground construction and containment of hazardous waste, monitoring noninvasively the aging infrastructures of developed nations, mitigating the threat of geohazards (earthquakes, volcanoes, landslides, avalanches) to populated areas, contributing to homeland security (including detection and removal of unexploded ordnance and land mines), evaluating changes in climate and managing humankind’s response to them, and exploring other planets.

Energy companies and mining firms employ geophysicists to explore for hidden resources around the world. Engineering firms hire geophysical engineers to assess the Earth’s near-surface properties when sites are chosen for large construction projects and waste-management operations. Environmental organizations use geophysics to conduct groundwater surveys and to track the flow of contaminants. On the global scale, geophysicists employed by universities and government agencies (such as the United States Geological Survey, NASA, and the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration) try to understand such Earth processes as heat flow, gravitational, magnetic, electric, thermal, and stress fields within the Earth’s interior. For the past decade, nearly 100% of Mines geophysics graduates have found employment in their chosen field, with about 70% choosing to pursue graduate studies.

The program leading to the degree of Bachelor of Science in Geophysical Engineering is accredited by the Engineering Accreditation Commission of ABET, http://www.abet.org.

Professors

John H. Bradford, Department Head

Yaoguo Li

Roelof K. Snieder, Keck Foundation Professor of Basic Exploration Science

Ilya D. Tsvankin

Ali Tura

Associate Professors

Thomas M. Boyd, Interim Provost

Brandon Dugan, Baker Hughes Chair in Petrophysics and Borehole Geophysics

Paul C. Sava, C.H. Green Chair of Exploration Geophysics

Jeffrey C. Shragge

Assistant Professors

Ebru Bozdag

Andrei Swidinsky

Whitney Trainor-Guitton

Professors Emeriti

Norman Bleistein

Thomas L. Davis

Dave Hale

Frank A. Hadsell

Alexander A. Kaufman

Kenneth L. Larner

Gary R. Olhoeft

Phillip R. Romig, Jr.

Terence K. Young

Research Associate Professor

Robert D. Benson

Research Assistant Professors

Jyoti Behura

Antoine Guitton

Richard Krahenbuhl

Adjunct Faculty

Bob Basker

Timothy Collett

Gavin P. Hayes

Walter S. Lynn

Morgan Moschetti

Nathaniel Putzig

Bruce VerWest

David J. Wald

Distinguished Senior Scientists

Warren B. Hamilton

Misac N. Nabighian

Bachelor of Science Program in Geophysical Engineering

Geophysical Engineering undergraduates who may have an interest in professional registration as engineers are encouraged to take the Engineer in Training (EIT)/Fundamentals of Engineering (FE) exam as seniors. The Geophysical Engineering Program has the following objectives and associated outcomes:

Program Objective 1: Graduates will be competent geophysical engineers who are capable of independent and innovative problem solving.

Program Objective 2: Graduates can design and execute experiments effectively with appropriate treatment of the resulting data.

Program Objective 3: Graduates will be competent in scientific computing.

Program Objective 4: Graduates will be effective communicators, both orally and in writing.

Program Objective 5: Graduates will exhibit good team skills, be able to lead and to follow effectively.
Student Outcomes (from ABET Criterion 3):

a. An ability to apply knowledge of mathematics, science, and engineering.

b. An ability to design and conduct experiments, as well as to analyze and interpret data.

c. An ability to design a system, component, or process to meet desired needs within realistic constraints such as economic, environmental, social, political, ethical, health, safety, manufacturability, and sustainability.

d. An ability to function on multidisciplinary teams.

e. An ability to identify, formulate, and solve engineering problems.

f. An understanding of professional and ethical responsibility.

g. An ability to communicate effectively.

h. The broad education necessary to understand the impact of engineering solutions in a global, economic, environmental, and societal context.

i. A recognition of the need for, and an ability to engage in life-long learning.

j. Knowledge of contemporary issues.

k. An ability to use the techniques, skills, and modern engineering tools necessary for engineering practice.

Program Specific Outcomes

1. Expanded perspective of applied geophysics as a result of participating in employment or research.

2. An ability to analyze, quantitatively, the errors, limitations, and uncertainties in data.

Geophysics Field Camp

Each summer, a base of field operations is set up for four weeks, usually in the mountains of Colorado, for students who have completed their junior year. Students prepare geological maps and cross sections and then use these as the basis for conducting seismic, gravimetric, magnetic, electrical, and electromagnetic surveys. After acquiring these various geophysical data-sets, the students process the data and develop an interpretation that is consistent with all the information. In addition to the required four-week program, students can also participate in other diverse field experiences. In recent years these have included cruises on seismic ships in the Gulf of Mexico, studies at an archeological site, investigations at an environmental site, a ground-penetrating radar survey on an active volcano in Hawaii, and a well-logging school offered by Baker Hughes.

Study Abroad

The Department of Geophysics encourages its undergraduates to spend one or two semesters studying abroad. At some universities, credits can be earned that substitute for course requirements in the geophysical engineering program at Mines. Information on universities that have established formal exchange programs with Mines can be obtained from either the Department of Geophysics or the Office of International Programs.

Combined BS/MS Program

Undergraduate students in the Geophysical Engineering program who would like to continue directly into the Master of Science program in Geophysics or Geophysical Engineering, are allowed to fulfill part of the requirements of their graduate degree by including up to six hours of specified course credits, which also were used in fulfilling the requirements of their undergraduate degree. Students interested to take advantage of this option should meet with their advisor or department head as early as possible in their undergraduate program to determine which elective courses will be acceptable and advantageous for accelerating them through their combined BS/MS studies.

Summer Jobs in Geophysics

In addition to the summer field camp experience, students are given opportunities every summer throughout their undergraduate career to work as summer interns within the industry, at Mines, or for government agencies such as the U.S. Geological Survey. Students have recently worked outdoors with geophysics crews in various parts of the U.S., South America, and offshore in the Gulf of Mexico.

Undergraduate Research

Students are encouraged to try their hand at research by working on a project with a Mines faculty member, either part-time during the semester, or full-time during the summer.  As an alternative to a summer internship, students may wish to participate in a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU), either at Mines or at another university.  REU's are typically sponsored by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and are listed on the NSF website.

The Cecil H. and Ida Green Graduate and Professional Center

The lecture rooms, laboratories, and computer-aided instruction areas of the Department of Geophysics are located in the Green Center. The Department maintains equipment for conducting geophysical field measurements, including magnetometers, gravity meters, ground-penetrating radar, and instruments for recording seismic waves. Students have access to the Department petrophysics laboratory for measuring properties of porous rocks.

Curriculum

Geophysics is an applied and interdisciplinary science; students therefore must have a strong foundation in physics, mathematics, geology and computer sciences. Superimposed on this foundation is a comprehensive body of courses on the theory and practice of geophysical methods. As geophysics and geophysical engineering involve the study and exploration of the entire earth, our graduates have great opportunities to work anywhere on, and even off, the planet. Therefore, the curriculum includes electives in the humanities and social sciences that give students an understanding of international issues and different cultures. Every student who obtains a Bachelor’s Degree in Geophysical Engineering completes the Mines Core Curriculum plus the courses listed below.   We recommend students download the current curriculum flowchart from the Departmental webpage, http://geophysics.mines.edu/GEO-Undergraduate-Program.

Degree Requirements (Geophysical Engineering)

Freshman
Fallleclabsem.hrs
GEGN101EARTH AND ENVIRONMENTAL SYSTEMS3.03.04.0
MATH111CALCULUS FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS I4.0 4.0
CHGN121PRINCIPLES OF CHEMISTRY I3.03.04.0
EPIC151INTRODUCTION TO DESIGN3.0 3.0
CSM101FRESHMAN SUCCESS SEMINAR0.5 0.5
PAGN ElectivePHYSICAL ACTIVITY COURSE  0.5
16.0
Springleclabsem.hrs
PHGN100PHYSICS I - MECHANICS3.53.04.5
MATH112CALCULUS FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS II4.0 4.0
CSCI101INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SCIENCE, MATH 201, CHGN 122, CHGN 125, or CBEN 1103.0 3.0
LAIS100NATURE AND HUMAN VALUES4.0 4.0
PAGN ElectivePHYSICAL ACTIVITY COURSE  0.5
16.0
Sophomore
Fallleclabsem.hrs
GEGN203ENGINEERING TERRAIN ANALYSIS or 20412.03.02.0
PHGN200PHYSICS II-ELECTROMAGNETISM AND OPTICS3.53.04.5
GEGN205ADVANCED PHYSICAL GEOLOGY LABORATORY  1.0
GPGN200INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS  3.0
EBGN201PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS3.0 3.0
MATH213CALCULUS FOR SCIENTISTS AND ENGINEERS III4.0 4.0
PAGN ElectivePHYSICAL ACTIVITY COURSE  0.5
18.0
Springleclabsem.hrs
LAIS200HUMAN SYSTEMS  3.0
GPGN221THEORY OF FIELDS I: STATIC FIELDS3.0 3.0
CSCI261PROGRAMMING CONCEPTS23.0 3.0
MATH225DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS3.0 3.0
GPGN268GEOPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS  3.0
PAGN ElectivePHYSICAL ACTIVITY COURSE  0.5
15.5
Junior
Fallleclabsem.hrs
GPGN304INTRO TO GRAVITY AND MAGNETIC METHODS2.03.03.0
GPGN315SUPPORTING GEOPHYSICAL FIELD INVESTIGATIONS  1.0
GPGN322THEORY OF FIELDS II: TIME-VARYING FIELDS3.0 3.0
MATH348ADVANCED ENGINEERING MATHEMATICS or PHGN 3113.0 3.0
ELECT Electives36.0 6.0
16.0
Springleclabsem.hrs
GPGN305INTRODUCTION TO SEISMIC EXPLORATION2.03.03.0
GPGN308INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS2.03.03.0
GPGN320ELEMENTS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS AND WAVE PROPAGATION3.0 3.0
GEOL308INTRODUCTORY APPLIED STRUCTURAL GEOLOGY or 30942.03.03.0
ELECT Electives36.0 6.0
18.0
Summerleclabsem.hrs
GPGN486GEOPHYSICS FIELD CAMP 4.04.0
4.0
Senior
Fallleclabsem.hrs
GPGN404DIGITAL SIGNAL ANALYSIS3.0 3.0
GP ELECT GPGN Advanced Elective53.03.04.0
GP ELECT GPGN Advanced Elective53.03.04.0
GPGN438GEOPHYSICS PROJECT DESIGN or 439 (in Spring Semester)6  3.0
ELECT Electives33.0 3.0
17.0
Springleclabsem.hrs
GPGN409INVERSION3.0 3.0
GP ELECT GPGN Advanced Elective53.0 3.0
GEOL315SEDIMENTOLOGY AND STRATIGRAPHY or 3144  3.0
ELECT Electives33.0 3.0
12.0
Total Semester Hrs: 132.5
1

Students must take GEGN205 (1 credit hour) with either
GEGN203 or GEGN204 (2 credit hours).

2

Students should enroll in the Java section of CSCI261, although
C++ is accepted.

3

Electives must include at least 9 hours that meet LAIS H&SS core requirements, 3 of these 9 must be at the 400-level.  The remaining 9 hours are Free Electives.  The Department of Geophysics encourages its students to consider organizing their electives to form a Minor or an Area of Special Interest (ASI). A guide suggesting various Minor and ASI programs can be obtained from the Department office.

4

Students must take either GEOL308 or GEOL309, and either
GEOL314 or GEOL315.

5

Students must take 11 credits of advanced GPGN elective courses
at the 400- or 500-level.

6

Students must take either GPGN438 or GPGN439 to satisfy the senior design requirement. The multidisciplinary design course GPGN439, a 3-credit course offered only in Spring semester, is strongly recommended for students interested in petroleum exploration and production. Students interested in non-petroleum applications of geophysics take GPGN438 for 3 credit hours, either by enrolling for all 3 credit hours in one semester (Fall or Spring) or by enrolling for a portion of the 3 hours in Fall and the remainder in Spring.

Major GPA

During the 2016-2017 Academic Year, the Undergraduate Council considered the policy concerning required major GPAs and which courses are included in each degree’s GPA.  While the GPA policy has not been officially updated, in order to provide transparency, council members agreed that publishing the courses included in each degree’s GPA is beneficial to students. 

The following list details the courses that are included in the GPA for this degree:

  • GPGN100 through GPGN599 inclusive

General CSM Minor/ASI requirements can be found here.

Minor in Geophysics/Geophysical Engineering

Geophysics plays an important role in many aspects of civil engineering, petroleum engineering, mechanical engineering, and mining engineering, as well as mathematics, physics, geology, chemistry, hydrology, and computer science. Given the natural connections between these various fields and geophysics, it may be of interest for students in other majors to consider choosing to minor in geophysics, or to choose geophysics as an area of specialization. The core of courses taken to satisfy the minor requirement typically includes some of the following geophysics methods courses.

GPGN200INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS3.0
GPGN404DIGITAL SIGNAL ANALYSIS3.0
GPGN409INVERSION3.0
GPGN432FORMATION EVALUATION4.0
GPGN470APPLICATIONS OF SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING3.0

The remaining hours can be satisfied by a combination of other geophysics courses, as well as courses in geology, mathematics, and computer science depending on the student’s major. Students must consult with the Department of Geophysics to have their sequence of courses approved before embarking on a minor program.

Courses

GPGN198. SPECIAL TOPICS. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

GPGN199. INDEPENDENT STUDY. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: ?Independent Study? form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit.

GPGN200. INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) (WI) This is a discovery course designed to introduce sophomores to the science of geophysics in the context of the whole-earth system. Students will explore the fundamental observations from which physical and mathematical inferences can be made regarding the Earth?s origin, structure, and processes. Examples of such observations are earthquake records; geodetic and gravitational data, such as those recorded by satellites; magnetic measurements; and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Learning will take place through the examination of selected topics that may vary from one semester to the next. Examples of such topics are: earthquake seismology, geomagnetism, geodynamics, and climate change. 3 hours, lecture, 3 semester hours.

GPGN221. THEORY OF FIELDS I: STATIC FIELDS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GPGN321,
(II) Introduction to the theory of gravitational, magnetic, and electrical fields encountered in geophysics. Emphasis on the mathematical and physical foundations of the various phenomena and the similarities and differences in the various field properties. Physical laws governing the behavior of the gravitational, electric, and magnetic fields. Systems of equations of these fields. Boundary value problems. Uniqueness theorem. Influence of a medium on field behavior. Prerequisites: PHGN200, MATH213, and concurrent enrollment in MATH225. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN268. GEOPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with EPIC268,
(II) Geophysical Data Analysis focuses on open-ended problem solving in which students integrate teamwork and communication with the use of computer software as tools to solve engineering problems. Computer applications emphasize information acquisition and processing based on knowing what new information is necessary to solve a problem and where to find the information efficiently. Students work on projects from the geophysical engineering practice in which they analyze (process, model, visualize) data. In their projects, students encounter limitations and uncertainties in data and learn quantitative means for handling them. They learn how to analyze errors in data, and their effects on data interpretation and decision making. 3 lecture hours; 3 semester hours.

GPGN298. SPECIAL TOPICS. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

GPGN299. INDEPENDENT STUDY. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: ?Independent Study? form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit.

GPGN304. INTRO TO GRAVITY AND MAGNETIC METHODS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) This is an introductory study of gravity and magnetic methods for imaging the earth's subsurface. The course begins with the connection between geophysical measurements and subsurface materials. It introduces basic concepts, mathematics, and physics of gravity and magnetic fields, emphasizing similarities with the equations and physics that underlie all geophysical methods. These methods are employed in geotechnical and environmental engineering and resources exploration for base and precious metals, industrial minerals, geothermal and hydrocarbons. The discussion of each method includes the principles, instrumentation, and procedures of data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation. Prerequisites: PHGN200, MATH213, MATH225, and concurrent enrollment in MATH348 or PHGN311. 2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN305. INTRODUCTION TO SEISMIC EXPLORATION. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) This is an introductory study of seismic methods for imaging the Earth's subsurface. The course begins with the connection between geophysical measurements and subsurface materials. It introduces basic concepts, mathematics, and physics of seismic wave propagation, emphasizing similarities with the equations and physics that underlie all geophysical methods. These methods are employed in geotechnical and environmental engineering and resources exploration for base and precious metals, industrial minerals, geothermal and hydrocarbons. The discussion of each method includes the principles, instrumentation, procedures of data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation. Prerequisites: GPGN322, PHGN200, MATH213, MATH225, and MATH348 or PHGN311. 2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN308. INTRODUCTION TO ELECTRICAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) This is an introductory course on electrical and electromagnetic methods in applied geophysics. Methods covered include: natural-source methods (self-potential, telluric, magnetotelluric, audio-magnetotelluric) and artificial-source methods (direct current resistivity, induced polarization, ground/airborne/marine electromagnetic methods, ground penetrating radar, as well as laboratory and borehole methods). The fundamental theory of electrical and electromagnetic exploration is introduced, along more practical aspects such as field acquisition procedures, data processing, and data interpretation. The application of these methods is demonstrated for a large variety of exploration goals including environmental, mining, groundwater, petroleum, geothermal, basin studies, and deep crustal investigations. Prerequisites: GPGN304, PHGN200, MATH213, MATH225, and concurrent enrollment in MATH348 or PHGN311. 2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN315. SUPPORTING GEOPHYSICAL FIELD INVESTIGATIONS. 1.0 Semester Hr.

(I) Prior to conducting a geophysical investigation, geophysicists often need input from related specialists such as geologists, surveyors, and land-men. Students are introduced to the issues that each of these specialists must address so that they may understand how each affects the design and outcome of geophysical investigations. Students learn to use and understand the range of applicability of a variety of surveying methods, learn the tools and techniques used in geological field mapping and interpretation, and explore the logistical and permitting issues directly related to geophysical field investigations. 3 hours lab, 1 semester hours.

GPGN320. ELEMENTS OF CONTINUUM MECHANICS AND WAVE PROPAGATION. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) Introduction to continuum mechanics and elastic wave propagation with an emphasis on principles and results important in seismology and earth sciences in general. Topics include a brief overview of elementary mechanics, stress and strain, Hooke?s law, notions of geostatic pressure and isostacy, fluid flow and Navier-Stokes equation. Basic discussion of the wave equation for elastic media, plane wave and their reflection/transmission at interfaces. Prerequisites: MATH213, PHGN200. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN322. THEORY OF FIELDS II: TIME-VARYING FIELDS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Constant electric field. Coulomb's law. System of equations of the constant electric field. Stationary electric field and the direct current in a conducting medium. Ohm's law. Principle of charge conservation. Sources of electric field in a conducting medium. Electromotive force. Resistance. System of equations of the stationary electric field. The magnetic field, caused by constant currents. Biot-Savart law. The electromagnetic induction. Faraday's law. Prerequisite: GPGN221. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN340. COOPERATIVE EDUCATION. 1-3 Semester Hr.

(I, II, S) Supervised, full-time, engineering-related employment for a continuous six-month period (or its equivalent) in which specific educational objectives are achieved. Prerequisite: Second semester sophomore status and a cumulative grade-point average of 2.00. 0 to 3 semester hours. Cooperative Education credit does not count toward graduation except under special conditions.

GPGN398. SPECIAL TOPICS. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

GPGN399. INDEPENDENT STUDY. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: ?Independent Study? form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit.

GPGN404. DIGITAL SIGNAL ANALYSIS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) The fundamentals of one-dimensional digital signal processing as applied to geophysical investigations are studied. Students explore the mathematical background and practical consequences of the sampling theorem, convolution, deconvolution, the Z and Fourier transforms, windows, and filters. Emphasis is placed on applying the knowledge gained in lecture to exploring practical signal processing issues. This is done through homework and in-class practicum assignments requiring the programming and testing of algorithms discussed in lecture. Prerequisites: MATH213, MATH225, and MATH348 or PHGN311. Knowledge of a computer programming language is assumed. 2.5 hours lecture; 1.5 hours lab, 3 semester hours.

GPGN409. INVERSION. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) The fundamentals of inverse problem theory as applied to geophysical investigation are studied. Students explore the fundamental concepts of inversion in a Bayesian framework as well as practical methods for solving discrete inverse problems. Topics studied include Monte Carlo methods, optimization criteria, convex optimization methods, and error and resolution analysis. Weekly homework assignments addressing either theoretical or numerical problems through programming assignments illustrate the concepts discussed in class. Prerequisites: MATH213, MATH225, GPGN404 and MATH348 or PHGN311. Knowledge of a programming language is assumed. 3 hours lecture, 3 semester hours.

GPGN411. ADVANCED GRAVITY AND MAGNETIC METHODS. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GPGN414,
(I) Instrumentation for land surface, borehole, sea floor, sea surface, and airborne operations. Reduction of observed gravity and magnetic values. Theory of potential field effects of geologic distributions. Methods and limitations of interpretation. Prerequisites: GPGN304. 3 hours lecture; 3 hours lab; 4 semester hours.

GPGN420. ADVANCED ELECTRICAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GPGN422,
(II) In-depth study of the application of electrical and electromagnetic methods to crustal studies, minerals exploration, oil and gas exploration, and groundwater. Laboratory work with mathematical models coupled with field work over areas of known geology. Prerequisites: GPGN308. 3 hours lecture; 3 hours lab; 4 semester hours.

GPGN432. FORMATION EVALUATION. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) The basics of core analysis and the principles of all common borehole instruments are reviewed. The course teaches interpretation methods that combine the measurements of various borehole instruments to determine rock properties such as porosity, permeability, hydrocarbon saturation, water salinity, ore grade and ash content. The impact of these parameters on reserve estimates of hydrocarbon reservoirs and mineral accumulations is demonstrated. Geophysical topics such as vertical seismic profiling, single well and cross-well seismic are emphasized in this course, while formation testing, and cased hole logging are covered in GPGN419/PEGN419 presented in the fall. The laboratory provides on-line course material and hands-on computer log evaluation exercises. Only one of the two courses GPGN432 and GPGN419/ PEGN419 can be taken for credit. Prerequisites: MATH225, MATH348 or PHGN311. 3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 4 semester hours.

GPGN438. GEOPHYSICS PROJECT DESIGN. 1-3 Semester Hr.

(I, II) (WI) Complementary design course for geophysics restricted elective course(s). Application of engineering design principles to geophysics through advanced work, individual in character, leading to an engineering report or senior thesis and oral presentation thereof. Choice of design project is to be arranged between student and individual faculty member who will serve as an advisor, subject to department head approval. Prerequisites: GPGN304, GPGN305, and GPGN308, and completion of or concurrent enrollment in geophysics method courses in the general topic area of the project design. Credit variable, 1 to 3 hours. Repeatable for credit up to a maximum of 3 hours.

GPGN439. GEOPHYSICS PROJECT DESIGN / MULTIDISCIPLINARY PETROLEUM DESIGN. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GEGN439,PEGN439,
(II) (WI) This is a multi-disciplinary design course that integrates fundamentals and design concepts in geology, geophysics, and petroleum engineering. Students work in integrated teams consisting of students from each of the disciplines. Multiple open-ended design problems in oil and gas exploration and field development, including the development of a prospect in an exploration play and a detailed engineering field study are assigned. Several detailed written and oral presentations are made throughout the semester. Project economics including risk analysis are an integral part of the course. Prerequisites: GE Majors: GEOL309, GEOL314, GEGN438, and EPIC264; GP Majors: GPGN268, GPGN304, and GPGN305; PE Majors: GEOL308, PEGN316 and PEGN426. 2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN455. INTRODUCTION TO EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GPGN555,
(II) Earthquakes are amongst the most significant natural hazards faced by mankind, with millions of fatalities forecast this century. They are also our most accessible source of information on Earth's structure, rheology and tectonics, which are what ultimately govern the distribution of its natural resources. This course provides an overview of how earthquake seismology, complemented by geodesy and tectonic geomorphology, can be used to determine earthquake locations, depths and mechanisms; understand Earth's tectonics and rheology; establish long-term earthquake histories and forecast future recurrence; and mitigate against seismic hazards. Prerequisites: GPGN320. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN461. SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING I. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GPGN452,
(I) This course covers the basic processing steps required to create images of the earth using 2-D and 3-D reflection seismic data. Topics include data organization and domains, signal processing to enhance temporal and spatial resolution, identification and suppression techniques of incoherent and coherent noises, velocity analysis, velocity conversion, near-surface statics, datuming, common-midpoint stacking, imaging principles and methods used for post-stack and prestack time and depth imaging, migration-velocity analysis and post-imaging enhancement techniques. Examples from field data are extensively used. A three-hour lab introduces the student to hands-on seismic data processing using Seismic Unix. The final exam consists of a presentation of the data processing a 2-D seismic line. Prerequisites: GPGN305 and GEOL308. Co-requisites: GPGN404. 3 hour lecture, 3 hour lab; 4 semester hours.

GPGN470. APPLICATIONS OF SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) An introduction to geoscience applications of satellite remote sensing of the Earth and planets. The lectures provide background on satellites, sensors, methodology, and diverse applications. Topics include visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared passive sensing, active microwave and radio sensing, and geodetic remote sensing. Lectures and labs involve use of data from a variety of instruments, as several applications to problems in the Earth and planetary sciences are presented. Students will complete independent term projects that are presented both written and orally at the end of the term. Prerequisites: PHGN200 and MATH225. 2 hours lecture, 2 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN471. GEODYNAMICS AND GEOLOGY. 2.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Earth?s evolving internal dynamics and properties have controlled time-varying crustal geologic processes and their products. All terrestrial planets fractionated synchronously with accretion, but only Earth continued strongly active. Much geology, from ancient granite and greenstone to recently enabled plate-tectonics, will be illustrated in the context of coevolving deep and shallow processes. Integration of geophysics, geology, and planetology will allow evaluation of popular and alternative explanations, but the sum will be contrarian, not conventional. Math and specialist vocabularies will be minimized. PREREQUISITES: CHGN121, PHGN100, PHGN200, and GEGN101. 2 lecture hours, 2 semester hours.

GPGN475. PLANETARY GEOPHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Of the solid planets and moons in our Solar System, no two bodies are exactly alike. This class will provide an overview of the observed properties of the planets and moons, cover the basic physical processes that govern their evolution, and then investigate how the planets differ and why. The overarching goals are to develop a quantitative understanding of the processes that drive the evolution of planetary surfaces and interiors, and to develop a deeper understanding of the Earth by placing it in the broader context of the Solar System. Prerequisites: PHGN100, MATH225, and GEGN205 or GEOL410. Senior or graduate standing recommended. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN486. GEOPHYSICS FIELD CAMP. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

(S) Introduction to geological and geophysical field methods. The program includes exercises in geological surveying, stratigraphic section measurements, geological mapping, and interpretation of geological observations. Students conduct geophysical surveys related to the acquisition of seismic, gravity, magnetic, and electrical observations. Students participate in designing the appropriate geophysical surveys, acquiring the observations, reducing the observations, and interpreting these observations in the context of the geological model defined from the geological surveys. Prerequisites: GPGN268, GEOL308 or GEOL309, GPGN304, GPGN305, GPGN308, and GPGN315. 12 hours lab; 4 semester hours.

GPGN498. SPECIAL TOPICS IN GEOPHYSICS. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

GPGN499. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: ?Independent Study? form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit.