GEOPHYSICAL ENGINEERING (GPGN)

GPGN101. INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS: GEOPHYSICS AND SOCIETY. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) This is a discovery course designed to introduce freshmen to the science of geophysics in the context of society and humans' interaction with the Earth. Students will explore geophysical measurements and characterization of earth properties and processes that have the greatest impact on the development of human civilization. Examples include characterizing earthquakes and volcanic eruptions, imaging energy resources deep within the earth, measuring the impacts of climate change on the ice sheets, and evaluation of water resources. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN198. SPECIAL TOPICS. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

GPGN199. INDEPENDENT STUDY. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: ?Independent Study? form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit.

GPGN200. INTRODUCTION TO GEOPHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) (WI) This is a discovery course designed to introduce sophomores to the science of geophysics in the context of the whole-earth system. Students will explore the fundamental observations from which physical and mathematical inferences can be made regarding the Earth?s origin, structure, and processes. Examples of such observations are earthquake records; geodetic and gravitational data, such as those recorded by satellites; magnetic measurements; and greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Learning will take place through the examination of selected topics that may vary from one semester to the next. Examples of such topics are: earthquake seismology, geomagnetism, geodynamics, and climate change. 3 hours, lecture, 3 semester hours.

GPGN228. INTRODUCTION TO ROCK PHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Introduction to sediment and rock properties, their measurements, and geophysical operations. Course will introduce physical and mathematical framework, quantitative interpretations, and provide framework for multi-physics approaches, data interpretation, and data inversion to help us understand the physical properties of the subsurface. Topics covered will include mineralogy, porosity, density, pore shape/size, pore fluids, permeability, compressibility, stress, and strength and how they can be measured with experiments and approximated with geophysical techniques. 2 hours lecture; 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN229. MATHEMATICAL GEOPHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) This course will address how specific mathematical approaches are used to understand and to solve geophysical problems. Topics that will be used in a geophysical context include continuum mechanics, linear algebra, vector calculus, complex variables, Fourier series, partial differential equations, probability, the wave equation, and the heat equation. Prerequisites: MATH111, MATH112, MATH213, PHGN100, PHGN200. Corequisites: MATH225. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN268. GEOPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with EPIC268,
(II) Geophysical Data Analysis focuses on open-ended problem solving in which students integrate teamwork and communication with the use of computer software as tools to solve engineering problems. Computer applications emphasize information acquisition and processing based on knowing what new information is necessary to solve a problem and where to find the information efficiently. Students work on projects from the geophysical engineering practice in which they analyze (process, model, visualize) data. In their projects, students encounter limitations and uncertainties in data and learn quantitative means for handling them. They learn how to analyze errors in data, and their effects on data interpretation and decision making. 3 lecture hours; 3 semester hours.

GPGN298. SPECIAL TOPICS. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

GPGN299. INDEPENDENT STUDY. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: ?Independent Study? form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit.

GPGN314. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) Applied Geophysics is an introductory course on the theory and application of gravity, magnetic, electrical, electromagnetic, and seismic methods for imaging the Earth's subsurface. These tools are employed in various geotechnical and environmental engineering problems, resource exploration and production monitoring, geothermal site characterization, hazards, and humanitarian efforts. Through the combination of three one-hour lectures and one three-hour lab each week, the students are provided with the fundamental theory and hands on field experiments for each of these techniques including the principles, instrumentation, and procedures of data acquisition, analysis, and interpretation. Prerequisites: MATH213, MATH225, GPGN228, GPGN328, CSCI250. Co-requisite: GPGN329. 3 hours lecture; 3 hours lab; 4 semester hours.

GPGN328. PHYSICS OF THE EARTH - I. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) This course is the first part of a two-course sequence on Physics of the Earth and will introduce the static fields including the electrostatics, steady state current flow in conductive media, magnetostatics, and gravitational field as used in probing the interior of the Earth and physical processes therein. The spatial context will be earth?s lithosphere and the associated geoscientific problems arise from a wide range of disciplines including environmental problems, hydrology, minerals and energy exploration, hydrology, tectonics, and climate science. The course will discuss static field theory, their interaction with different physical properties of earth materials, and the use of these fields in imaging, characterizing, and monitoring structures and processes in the earth lithosphere and on the interface between atmosphere and crust. Prerequisites: PHGN200, GPGN229. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN329. PHYSICS OF THE EARTH - II. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) The second half of Physics of the Earth will aim to give a global perspective to Earth?s formation and evolution. Starting from conservation laws and continuum mechanics, Earth?s dynamic fields (theory of seismic and electromagnetic wave propagation) will be covered in the context of solid-Earth geophysics and integrated with various geophysical observations & measurements; the Earth seen by the waves, inferring the structure and composition of the interior of planetary bodies from crust to core, physical & thermo-chemical processes in mantle and core shaping Earth?s surface and magnetic field, planetary cooling, ?hot topics? and current challenges in illuminating Earth?s deep structure, modern computational techniques that are used to improve our understanding of Earth?s interior and history. Prerequisites: PHGN200, MATH225, GPGN229, GPGN328. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN340. COOPERATIVE EDUCATION. 1-3 Semester Hr.

(I, II, S) Supervised, full-time, engineering-related employment for a continuous six-month period (or its equivalent) in which specific educational objectives are achieved. Prerequisite: Second semester sophomore status and a cumulative grade-point average of 2.00. 0 to 3 semester hours. Cooperative Education credit does not count toward graduation except under special conditions.

GPGN350. SCIENCE AND COMMUNICATION SKILLS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) (WI) This class covers the basic skills needed for research and for communicating the results of the research. The class covers hands-on elements of doing research, such as choosing a research topic, generating research questions, making a work plan, dealing with the ambiguity and hurdles of research, research ethics, as well as publishing scientific papers, scientific writing, giving oral communications, and writing research proposals. In addition, the class covers career-oriented topics such as choosing a program for graduate studies, working with an advisor, and applying for a job. Students acquire hands-on experience by choosing a research project, making a work plan, writing a proposal, and presenting that proposal. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN398. SPECIAL TOPICS. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

GPGN399. INDEPENDENT STUDY. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: ?Independent Study? form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit.

GPGN404. DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) The fundamentals of 1-D digital signal processing as applied to geophysical investigations are studied. Students explore the mathematical background and practical consequences of Fourier series and 1D/2D Fourier transforms, linear time-invariant (LTI) systems, convolution and deconvolution, properties of discrete systems, sampling theorem and signal reconstruction, Z-Transform, discrete-time Fourier transform, discrete Fourier series and discrete Fourier transform, windowing and spectrograms, realization of digital filters, FIR filter design and IIR filter design Emphasis is placed on applying the knowledge gained in lecture to exploring practical signal processing issues. This is done through homework and in-class practicum assignments requiring the programming and testing of algorithms discussed in lecture. Prerequisite: CSCI250. 2 hours lecture; 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN409. INVERSION. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) A study of the fundamentals of inverse problem theory as applied to geophysics. The inversion technology has applicability in all fields of geophysical application, regardless of the physics employed, as well as in non-geophysical data analysis. The course covers fundamental concepts of inversion in the probabilistic and deterministic frameworks, as well as practical methods for solving discrete inverse problems. Topics studied include model discretization, Bayesian inversion, optimization criteria and methods, regularization techniques, error and resolution analysis. Weekly homework assignments addressing either theoretical or numerical problems through programming assignments illustrate the concepts discussed in class. Knowledge of the Python programming language is assumed. Prerequisites: GPGN229, MATH332, GPGN335, CSCI250. Co-requisite: GPGN435. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN411. GRAVITY AND MAGNETIC METHODS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GPGN414,
(I) Instrumentation for land surface, borehole, sea floor, sea surface, and airborne operations. Reduction of observed gravity and magnetic values. Theory of potential field effects of geologic distributions. Methods and limitations of interpretation. Prerequisite: GPGN314. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN419. INTRODUCTION TO FORMATION EVALUATION AND WELL LOGGING. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I, II) An introduction to well logging methods, including the relationship between measured properties and reservoir properties. Analysis of log suites for reservoir size and content. Graphical and analytical methods will be developed to allow the student to better visualize the reservoir, its contents, and its potential for production. Use of the computer as a tool to handle data, create graphs and log traces, and make computations of reservoir parameters is required. Prerequisite: GPGN314. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN420. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC METHODS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GPGN422,
(II) In-depth study of the application of electrical and electromagnetic methods to crustal studies, minerals exploration, oil and gas exploration, and groundwater. Laboratory work with mathematical models coupled with field work over areas of known geology. Prerequisite: GPGN314. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN432. FORMATION EVALUATION. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) The basics of core analysis and the principles of all common borehole instruments are reviewed. The course teaches interpretation methods that combine the measurements of various borehole instruments to determine rock properties such as porosity, permeability, hydrocarbon saturation, water salinity, ore grade and ash content. The impact of these parameters on reserve estimates of hydrocarbon reservoirs and mineral accumulations is demonstrated. Geophysical topics such as vertical seismic profiling, single well and cross-well seismic are emphasized in this course, while formation testing, and cased hole logging are covered in GPGN419/PEGN419 presented in the fall. The laboratory provides on-line course material and hands-on computer log evaluation exercises. Only one of the two courses GPGN432 and GPGN419/ PEGN419 can be taken for credit. Prerequisites: MATH225, MATH348 or PHGN311. 3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 4 semester hours.

GPGN435. GEOPHYSICAL COMPUTING. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) This course develops the principles of geophysical computing in the context of simulating and validating numerical solutions to the types of partial differential equations commonly found in geophysical investigations (e.g., potential fields, heat flow/diffusion, seismic wave propagation). Students are introduced to architecture of modern computing systems and learn how algorithms can be developed to leverage this architecture to efficiently generate numerical solutions to multidimensional geophysical problems using parallel computing methods. Prerequisite: CSCI250. 2 hours lecture; 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN438. GEOPHYSICS PROJECT DESIGN. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) (WI) Complementary design course for geophysics restricted elective course(s). Application of engineering design principles to geophysics through advanced work, individual in character, leading to an engineering report or senior thesis and oral presentation thereof. Choice of design project is to be arranged between student and individual faculty member who will serve as an advisor, subject to department head approval. Prerequisites: GPGN314, GPGN329, GPGN404. 1 hour lecture; 6 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN455. EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GPGN555,
(I) Earthquakes are amongst the most significant natural hazards faced by mankind, with millions of fatalities forecast this century. They are also our most accessible source of information on Earth's structure, rheology and tectonics, which are what ultimately govern the distribution of its natural resources. This course provides an overview of how earthquake seismology, complemented by geodesy and tectonic geomorphology, can be used to determine earthquake locations, depths and mechanisms; understand Earth's tectonics and rheology; establish long-term earthquake histories and forecast future recurrence; mitigate against seismic hazards; illuminate large- and fine-scale features of Earth?s interior using earthquake data. Students will also cover the recent developments in 3D numerical earthquake source and wave propagation modelling as well as common & modern seismic data formats and processing/visualization tools and techniques used in earthquake seismology. Prerequisites: PHGN200, GPGN461, GPGN229. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN458. SEISMIC INTERPRETATION. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) This course will give the participants a unique hands-on experience in seismic interpretation working with several sets of field data and industry standard interpretation software. The course will provide valuable knowledge and information in professional career development. The course involves lectures and labs on seismic interpretation on data sets from a variety of petroleum provinces from around the world. Potential projects for interpretation can be from Gulf of Mexico, North Sea and US land and can have time-lapse and multi-component data types. The class is based on completion and presentation of assignments, exams and final project. Final project will be presentation of the prospect as developed by a group of students. 2 hours lecture; 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN461. SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GPGN452,
(I) This course covers the basic processing steps required to create images of the earth using 2D and 3D reflection seismic data. Topics include data organization and domains, signal processing to enhance temporal and spatial resolution, identification and suppression of incoherent and coherent noise, velocity analysis, near-surface statics, datuming, normal- and dip-moveout corrections, common-midpoint stacking, principles and methods used for poststack and prestack time and depth imaging, migration velocity analysis and post-imaging enhancement techniques. Realistic synthetic examples and field data sets are extensively used throughout the course. A three-hour lab introduces the student to hands-on data processing using Seismic Unix software package. The final exam consists of processing a 2D seismic line with oral presentation of the results. Prerequisites: GPGN404, GPGN329, GPGN314. 3 hours lecture; 3 hours lab; 4 semester hours.

GPGN470. APPLICATIONS OF SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) An introduction to geoscience applications of satellite remote sensing of the Earth and planets. The lectures provide background on satellites, sensors, methodology, and diverse applications. Topics include visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared passive sensing, active microwave and radio sensing, and geodetic remote sensing. Lectures and labs involve use of data from a variety of instruments, as several applications to problems in the Earth and planetary sciences are presented. Students will complete independent term projects that are presented both written and orally at the end of the term. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN471. GEODYNAMICS AND GEOLOGY. 2.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Earth?s evolving internal dynamics and properties have controlled time-varying crustal geologic processes and their products. All terrestrial planets fractionated synchronously with accretion, but only Earth continued strongly active. Much geology, from ancient granite and greenstone to recently enabled plate-tectonics, will be illustrated in the context of coevolving deep and shallow processes. Integration of geophysics, geology, and planetology will allow evaluation of popular and alternative explanations, but the sum will be contrarian, not conventional. Math and specialist vocabularies will be minimized. PREREQUISITES: CHGN121, PHGN100, PHGN200, and GEGN101. 2 lecture hours, 2 semester hours.

GPGN474. HYDROGEOPHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) Application of geophysical methods to problems in hydrology. The course will consider both groundwater and surface water problems from the micro to basin scale. Topics may include characterizing groundwater surface water interaction, critical zone evaluation and weathering processes, snow and ice as a water resource, large scale imaging of aquifer systems, in situ estimation of aquifer parameters, evaluation of groundwater resources, delineation of thermal and chemical pollution of groundwater, and mapping of saltware intrusion. Readings and discussions will touch on social and political issues surrounding water use and the critical role that physical characterization plays in understanding water resources. Prerequisite: GPGN314. 2 hours lecture; 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN475. PLANETARY GEOPHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Of the solid planets and moons in our Solar System, no two bodies are exactly alike. This class will provide an overview of the observed properties of the planets and moons, cover the basic physical processes that govern their evolution, and then investigate how the planets differ and why. The overarching goals are to develop a quantitative understanding of the processes that drive the evolution of planetary surfaces and interiors, and to develop a deeper understanding of the Earth by placing it in the broader context of the Solar System. Prerequisites: PHGN100, MATH225, and GEGN205 or GEOL410. Senior or graduate standing recommended. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN486. GEOPHYSICS FIELD CAMP. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

(S) (WI) Introduction to geological and geophysical field methods. The program includes exercises in geological surveying, stratigraphic section measurements, geological mapping, and interpretation of geological observations. Students conduct geophysical surveys related to the acquisition of seismic, gravity, magnetic, and electrical observations. Students participate in designing the appropriate geophysical surveys, acquiring the observations, reducing the observations, and interpreting these observations in the context of the geological model defined from the geological surveys. Prerequisites: GPGN268, GPGN314, GPGN329, GPGN335, GEGN203 or GEGN204, GEGN205. 12 hours lab; 4 semester hours.

GPGN498. SPECIAL TOPICS IN GEOPHYSICS. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

GPGN498. SPECIAL TOPICS IN GEOPHYSICS. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

GPGN499. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION. 1-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: ?Independent Study? form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit; 1 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit.

GPGN503. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Students work alone and in teams to study reservoirs from fluvial-deltaic and valley fill depositional environments. This is a multidisciplinary course that shows students how to characterize and model subsurface reservoir performance by integrating data, methods and concepts from geology, geophysics and petroleum engineering. Activities include field trips, computer modeling, written exercises and oral team presentations. Prerequisite: none. 2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours. Offered fall semester, odd years.

GPGN504. INTEGRATED EXPLORATION AND DEVELOPMENT. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Students work in multidisciplinary teams to study practical problems and case studies in integrated subsurface exploration and development. The course addresses emerging technologies and timely topics with a general focus on carbonate reservoirs. Activities include field trips, 3D computer modeling, written exercises and oral team presentation. Prerequisite: none. 3 hours lecture and seminar; 3 semester hours. Offered fall semester, even years.

GPGN507. NEAR-SURFACE FIELD METHODS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Students design and implement data acquisition programs for all forms of near-surface geophysical surveys. The result of each survey is then modeled and discussed in the context of field design methods. Prerequisite: none. 2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours. Offered fall semester, even years.

GPGN509. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND PROCESSES IN ROCK, SOILS, AND FLUIDS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Physical and chemical properties and processes that are measurable with geophysical instruments are studied, including methods of measurement, interrelationships between properties, coupled processes, and processes which modify properties in pure phase minerals and fluids, and in mineral mixtures (rocks and soils). Investigation of implications for petroleum development, minerals extraction, groundwater exploration, and environmental remediation. Prerequisite: none. 3 hours lecture, 3 semester hours.

GPGN511. ADVANCED GRAVITY AND MAGNETIC EXPLORATION. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Field or laboratory projects of interest to class members; topics for lecture and laboratory selected from the following: new methods for acquiring, processing, and interpreting gravity and magnetic data, methods for the solution of two- and three-dimensional potential field problems, Fourier transforms as applied to gravity and magnetics, the geologic implications of filtering gravity and magnetic data, equivalent distributions, harmonic functions, inversions. Prerequisite: GPGN411. 3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab and field; 4 semester hours.

GPGN519. ADVANCED FORMATION EVALUATION. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) A detailed review of well logging and other formation evaluation methods will be presented, with the emphasis on the imaging and characterization of hydrocarbon reservoirs. Advanced logging tools such as array induction, dipole sonic, and imaging tools will be discussed. The second half of the course will offer in parallel sessions: for geologists and petroleum engineers on subjects such as pulsed neutron logging, nuclear magnetic resonance, production logging, and formation testing; for geophysicists on vertical seismic profiling, cross well acoustics and electro-magnetic surveys. Prerequisite: GPGN419/PEGN419. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN520. ELECTRICAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC EXPLORATION. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Electromagnetic theory. Instrumentation. Survey planning. Processing of data. Geologic interpretations. Methods and limitations of interpretation. Prerequisite: GPGN302 and GPGN303. 3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 4 semester hours. Offered fall semester, odd years.

GPGN521. ADVANCED ELECTRICAL AND ELECTROMAGNETIC EXPLORATION. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) Field or laboratory projects of interest to class members; topics for lecture and laboratory selected from the following: new methods for acquiring, processing and interpreting electrical and electromagnetic data, methods for the solution of two- and three-dimensional EM problems, physical modeling, integrated inversions. Prerequisite: GPGN420 or GPGN520. 3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 4 semester hours. Offered spring semester, even years.

GPGN530. APPLIED GEOPHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) Introduction to geophysical techniques used in a variety of industries (mining, petroleum, environmental and engineering) in exploring for new deposits, site design, etc. The methods studied include gravity, magnetic, electrical, seismic, radiometric and borehole techniques. Emphasis on techniques and their applications are tailored to student interests. The course, intended for non-geophysics students, will emphasize the theoretical basis for each technique, the instrumentation used and data collection, processing and interpretation procedures specific to each technique so that non-specialists can more effectively evaluate the results of geophysical investigations. Prerequisites: PHGN100, PHGN200, MATH111, GEGN401. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN533. GEOPHYSICAL DATA INTEGRATION & GEOSTATISTICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Students will learn the fundamentals of and explore opportunities for further development of geostatistical data integration techniques for subsurface earth modeling. The class will build on probability theory, spatial correlations and geostatistics algorithms for combing data of diverse support and resolution into subsurface models. The emphasis of the material will be on stochastic methods for combining quantitative and qualitative data into many equi-probable realizations. Activities include computer modeling, written exercises, oral team presentations, and a semester project with opportunity to enhance student?s respective research projects. Also, we will read, discuss and implement current research articles the in literature to encourage implementation of state-of-the-art practices and/or highlighting current opportunities for research. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN535. GEOPHYSICAL COMPUTING. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) A survey of computer programming skills most relevant to geophysical data processing, visualization and analysis. Skills enhanced include effective use of multiple programming languages, data structures, multicore systems, and computer memory hierarchies. Problems addressed include multidimensional geophysical image processing, geophysical data acquired at scattered locations, finite-difference approximations to partial differential equations, and other computational problems encountered in research by students. Prerequisites: Experience programming in Java, C, C++ or Fortran. 3 hours lecture, 3 credit hours.

GPGN540. MINING GEOPHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Introduction to gravity, magnetic, electric, radiometric and borehole techniques used primarily by the mining industry in exploring for new deposits but also applied extensively to petroleum, environmental and engineering problems. The course, intended for graduate geophysics students, will emphasize the theoretical basis for each technique, the instrumentation used and data collection, processing and interpretation procedures specific to each technique. Prerequisites: GPGN221, GPGN322, MATH111, MATH112, MATH213. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN551. WAVE PHENOMENA SEMINAR. 1.0 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Students will probe a range of current methodologies and issues in seismic data processing, and discuss their ongoing and planned research projects. Topic areas include: Statics estimation and compensation, deconvolution, multiple suppression, wavelet estimation, imaging and inversion, anisotropic velocity and amplitude analysis, seismic interferometry, attenuation and dispersion, extraction of stratigraphic and lithologic information, and correlation of surface and borehole seismic data with well log data. Every student registers for GPGN551 in only the first semester in residence and receives a grade of PRG. The grade is changed to a letter grade after the student's presentation of thesis research. Prerequisite: none. 1 hour seminar; 1 semester hour.

GPGN552. INTRODUCTION TO SEISMOLOGY. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Introduction to basic principles of elasticity including Hooke?s law, equation of motion, representation theorems, and reciprocity. Representation of seismic sources, seismic moment tensor, radiation from point sources in homogeneous isotropic media. Boundary conditions, reflection/transmission coefficients of plane waves, plane-wave propagation in stratified media. Basics of wave propagation in attenuative media, brief description of seismic modeling methods. Prerequisite: GPGN461. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN553. INTRODUCTION TO SEISMOLOGY. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) This course is focused on the physics of wave phenomena and the importance of wave-theory results in exploration and earthquake seismology. Includes reflection and transmission problems for spherical waves, methods of steepest descent and stationary phase, point-source radiation in layered isotropic media, surface and non-geometrical waves. Discussion of seismic modeling methods, fundamentals of wave propagation in anisotropic and attenuative media. Prerequisite: GPGN552. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours. Offered spring semester, even years.

GPGN555. INTRODUCTION TO EARTHQUAKE SEISMOLOGY. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GPGN455,
(II) Earthquakes are amongst the most significant natural hazards faced by mankind, with millions of fatalities forecast this century. They are also our most accessible source of information on Earth's structure, rheology and tectonics, which are what ultimately govern the distribution of its natural resources. This course provides an overview of how earthquake seismology, complemented by geodesy and tectonic geomorphology, can be used to determine Earth structure, earthquake locations, depths and mechanisms; understand Earth's tectonics and rheology; establish long-term earthquake histories and forecast future recurrence; and mitigate against seismic hazards. GPGN555 differs from GPGN455 in that the assignments are approximately 20% longer and encompass more challenging questions. GPGN555 is the appropriate course for graduate students and for undergraduates who expect to go on to study earthquake seismology at graduate school. Prerequisites: GPGN320. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN558. SEISMIC DATA INTERPRETATION. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) Practical interpretation of seismic data used in exploration for hydro carbons. Integration with other sources of geological and geophysical information. Prerequisite: GPGN461, GEOL501 or equivalent. 2 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN561. SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING I. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Introduction to basic principles underlying the processing of seismic data for suppression of various types of noise. Includes the rationale for and methods for implementing different forms of gain to data, and the use of various forms of stacking for noise suppression, such as diversity stacking of Vibroseis data, normal-moveout correction and common-midpoint stacking, optimum-weight stacking, beam steering and the stack array. Also discussed are continuous and discrete oneand two-dimensional data filtering, including Vibroseis correlation, spectral whitening, moveout filtering, data interpolation, slant stacking, and the continuous and discrete Radon transform for enhancing data resolution and suppression of multiples and other forms of coherent noise. Prerequisite: GPGN461. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN562. SEISMIC DATA PROCESSING II. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) The student will gain understanding of applications of deterministic and statistical deconvolution for wavelet shaping, wavelet compression, and multiple suppression. Both reflection-based and refraction-based statistics estimation and correction for 2-D and 3-D seismic data will be covered, with some attention to problems where subsurface structure is complex. Also for areas of complex subsurface structure, students will be introduced to analytic and interactive methods of velocity estimation. Where the near-surface is complex, poststack and prestack imaging methods, such as layer replacement are introduced to derive dynamic corrections to reflection data. Also discussed are special problems related to the processing of multi-component seismic data for enhancement of shearwave information, and those related to processing of vertical seismic profile data for separation of upgoing and downgoing P- and S- wave arrivals. Prerequisite: GPGN461 and GPGN561. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours. Offered spring semester, odd years.

GPGN570. APPLICATIONS OF SATELLITE REMOTE SENSING. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) An introduction to geoscience applications of satellite remote sensing of the Earth and planets. The lectures provide background on satellites, sensors, methodology, and diverse applications. Topics include visible, near infrared, and thermal infrared passive sensing, active microwave and radio sensing, and geodetic remote sensing. Lectures and labs involve use of data from a variety of instruments, as several applications to problems in the Earth and planetary sciences are presented. Students will complete independent term projects that are presented both written and orally at the end of the term. Prerequisites: PHGN200 and MATH225. 2 hours lecture, 2 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

GPGN574. GROUNDWATER GEOPHYSICS. 4.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) Description of world groundwater aquifers. Effects of water saturation on the physical properties of rocks. Use of geophysical methods in the exploration, development and production of groundwater. Field demonstrations of the application of the geophysical methods in the solution of some groundwater problems. Prerequisite: none. 3 hours lecture, 3 hours lab; 4 semester hours.

GPGN575. PLANETARY GEOPHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

Equivalent with GPGN475,
(I) Of the solid planets and moons in our Solar System, no two bodies are exactly alike. This class will provide an overview of the observed properties of the planets and moons, cover the basic physical processes that govern their evolution, and then investigate how the planets differ and why. The overarching goals are to develop a quantitative understanding of the processes that drive the evolution of planetary surfaces and interiors, and to develop a deeper understanding of the Earth by placing it in the broader context of the Solar System. Prerequisites: Graduate standing. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN576. SPECIAL TOPICS IN THE PLANETARY SCIENCES. 1.0 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Students will read and discuss papers on a particular topic in the planetary sciences. The choice of topic will change each semester. The emphasis is on key topics related to the current state and evolution of the solid planets and moons in our solar system. Readings will include both seminal papers and current research on the topic. Students will take turns presenting summaries of the papers and leading the ensuing discussion. Prerequisites: Graduate standing, or senior standing. 1 hour lecture; 1 semester hour. Repeatable for credit.

GPGN581. GRADUATE SEMINAR. 1.0 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Attendance at scheduled weekly Heiland Distinguished Lectures during each semester of enrollment. Students must complete one individual presentation during the graduate program, at an approved public venue, before degree is granted. Every thesis-based MS student in Geophysics and Geophysical Engineering registers each semester in residence in the program and receive 0.0 credit hours until the last semester in residence. For the last semester, 1.0 credit hours and a grade of PRG are awarded with satisfactory attendance and successful completion of individual presentation requirement. 1 hour seminar; 0 or 1 semester hours.

GPGN598. SPECIAL TOPICS IN GEOPHYSICS. 6.0 Semester Hrs.

(I, II, S) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once, but no more than twice for the same course content. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit: 0 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

GPGN599. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS MS. 0.5-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II, S) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: ?Independent Study? form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit: 0.5 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different topics/experience and maximums vary by department. Contact the Department for credit limits toward the degree.

GPGN605. INVERSION THEORY. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) Introductory course in inverting geophysical observations for inferring earth structure and processes. Techniques discussed include: Monte-Carlo procedures, Marquardt-Levenburg optimization, and generalized linear inversion. In addition, aspects of probability theory, data and model resolution, uniqueness considerations, and the use of a priori constraints are presented. Students are required to apply the inversion methods described to a problem of their choice and present the results as an oral and written report. Prerequisite: MATH225 and knowledge of a scientific programming language. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN651. ADVANCED SEISMOLOGY. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) In-depth discussion of wave propagation and seismic processing for anisotropic, heterogeneous media. Topics include influence of anisotropy on plane-wave velocities and polarizations, traveltime analysis for transversely isotropic models, anisotropic velocity-analysis and imaging methods, point-source radiation and Green?s function in anisotropic media, inversion and processing of multicomponent seismic data, shear-wave splitting, and basics of seismic fracture characterization. Prerequisites: GPGN552 and GPGN553. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN658. SEISMIC WAVEFIELD IMAGING. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(I) Seismic imaging is the process that converts seismograms, each recorded as a function of time, to an image of the earth's subsurface, which is a function of depth below the surface. The course emphasizes imaging applications developed from first principles (elastodynamics relations) to practical methods applicable to seismic wavefield data. Techniques discussed include reverse-time migration and migration by wavefield extrapolation, angle-domain imaging, migration velocity analysis and analysis of angle-dependent reflectivity. Students do independent term projects presented at the end of the term, under the supervision of a faculty member or guest lecturer. Prerequisite: none. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

GPGN660. MATHEMATICS OF SEISMIC IMAGING AND MIGRATION. 3.0 Semester Hrs.

(II) During the past 40 years geophysicists have developed many techniques (known collectively as ?migration?) for imaging geologic structures deep within the Earth?s subsurface. Beyond merely imaging strata, migration can provide information about important physical properties of rocks, necessary for the subsequent drilling and development of oil- and gas-bearing formations within the Earth. In this course the student will be introduced to the mathematical theory underlying seismic migration, in the context of ?inverse scattering imaging theory.? The course is heavily oriented toward problem solving. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours. Offered spring semester, odd years.

GPGN681. GRADUATE SEMINAR - PHD. 1.0 Semester Hr.

(I, II) Attendance at scheduled weekly Heiland Distinguished Lectures during each semester of enrollment. Students must complete one individual presentation at an approved, offcampus conference before degree is granted. Every PhD student in Geophysics and Geophysical Engineering registers each semester in residence in the program and receive 0.0 credit hours until the last semester in residence. For the last semester, 1.0 credit hours and a grade of PRG are awarded with satisfactory attendance and successful completion of individual presentation requirement. 1 hour seminar; 1 semester hour.

GPGN698. SPECIAL TOPICS. 6.0 Semester Hrs.

(I, II, S) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once, but no more than twice for the same course content. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit: 0 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

GPGN699. GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATION-PHD. 0.5-6 Semester Hr.

(I, II, S) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: ?Independent Study? form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit: 0.5 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different topics/experience and maximums vary by department. Contact the Department for credit limits toward the degree.

GPGN707. GRADUATE THESIS / DISSERTATION RESEARCH CREDIT. 1-15 Semester Hr.

(I, II, S) Research credit hours required for completion of a Masters-level thesis or Doctoral dissertation. Research must be carried out under the direct supervision of the student's faculty advisor. Variable class and semester hours. Repeatable for credit.