# Physics

### Degrees Offered

- Master of Science (Applied Physics)
- Doctor of Philosophy (Physics)

### Program Description

The Physics Department at Mines offers a full program of instruction and research leading to the MS in Applied Physics or PhD in Physics and is part of interdisciplinary programs in Materials Science and in Nuclear Engineering, through which students can obtain both the MS and the PhD degrees. The research in these graduate programs is supported by external grants and contracts totaling $6M/year. Research in the Department is organized under three primary themes: subatomic physics, condensed matter physics, and applied optics. With 23 faculty, 66 graduate students, and 225 undergraduate physics majors, the Physics Department at Mines is a vibrant intellectual community providing high-quality education in state-of-the-art facilities.

Graduate students are given a solid background in the fundamentals of classical and modern physics at an advanced level and are encouraged early in their studies to learn about the research interests of the faculty so that a thesis topic can be identified.

### Professors

Lincoln D. Carr

Charles G. Durfee III

Uwe Greife

Mark T. Lusk

Frederic Sarazin, Department Head

Jeff A. Squier

Lawrence R. Wiencke

### Associate Professors

Eliot Kapit

Timothy R. Ohno

Eric S. Toberer, Director of Materials Science

### Assistant Professors

Daniel Adams

Serena M. Eley

Zhexuan Gong

Kyle G. Leach

Susanta K. Sarkar

Meenakshi Singh

Jeramy D. Zimmerman

### Teaching Professors

Kristine E. Callan

Alex T. Flournoy

Patrick B. Kohl

H. Vincent Kuo, Assistant Department Head

Todd G. Ruskell

Charles A. Stone

### Teaching Assistant Professor

Emily M. Smith

### Research Associate Professor

Wendy Adams Spencer

### Research Assistant Professors

P. David Flammer

Laith Haddad

Lakshmi Krishna

Lokender Kumar

Nitin Kumar

K. Xerxes Steirer

### Professors Emeriti

F. Edward Cecil

Reuben T. Collins

Thomas E. Furtak

Frank V. Kowalski

John Scales

P. Craig Taylor

John Trefny, President Emeritus

Don L. Williamson

### Associate Professors Emeriti

David M. Wood

### Program Requirements

Students entering graduate programs in the Physics Department will select an initial program in consultation with the departmental graduate student advising committee until such time as a research field has been chosen and a thesis committee appointed.

**Master of Science**

Requirements: 20 semester hours of course work in an approved program, plus 16 semester hours of research credit, with a satisfactory thesis.

### Mines’ Combined Undergraduate / Graduate Degree Program

Students enrolled in Mines’ combined undergraduate/graduate program may double count up to six hours of credits which were used in fulfilling the requirements of their undergraduate degree at Mines, towards their graduate program. Any 400+ level courses that count towards the undergraduate degree requirements as "Elective Coursework" or any 500+ level course, may be used for the purposes of double counting at the discretion of the graduate advisor. These courses must have been passed with a "B-" or better, not be substitutes for required coursework, and meet all other University, Department, Division, and Program requirements for graduate credit.

**Doctor of Philosophy**

Requirements: 32 semester hours of course work in an approved program, plus 40 semester hours of research credit, with a satisfactory thesis. 12 semester hours of course work will be in a specialty topic area defined in consultation with the thesis advisor. Possible specialty topic areas within the Physics Department exist in Optical Science and Engineering, Condensed Matter Physics, Theoretical Physics, Renewable Energy Physics, and Nuclear/Particle Physics and Astrophysics.

To demonstrate adequate preparation for the PhD degree in Physics, each student must achieve a grade of 3.0 or better in each core course. Students not meeting this standard must pass oral examinations covering the relevant core courses or retake the courses with a grade of 3.0 or better within one year. This process is part of the requirement for admission to candidacy, which full time PhD students must complete within two calendar years of admission, as described in the campus-wide graduate degree requirements section of this bulletin. Other degree requirements, time limits, and procedural details can be found in the Physics Department Graduate Student Advising Brochure.

### Physics Colloquium

All full-time physics graduate students must attend the Physics Colloquium, which is represented in the curriculum by the Graduate Seminar courses. Students must take one of these courses every semester that they are enrolled at CSM. Those students who are in the MS Program, sign up for PHGN501 (fall) and PHGN502 (spring). Students in the PhD program sign up for PHGN601 (fall) and PHGN602 (spring). At the end of each semester students are assigned either a satisfactory or unsatisfactory progress grade, based on attendance, until the final semester of the student's degree program, when a letter grade is assigned based on all prior semesters' attendance grades. As a result, while these courses are taken each year, only 1 hour total of course credit is conferred for each of 501, 502, 601, or 602. Students who have official part-time status and who have already taken at least one semester of 501 and 502 for the MS degree, or 601 and 602 for the PhD degree are not required to sign up for Graduate Seminar during subsequent semesters.

### Prerequisites

The Graduate School of the Colorado School of Mines is open to graduates from four-year programs at accredited colleges or universities. Admission to the Physics Department MS and PhD programs is competitive and is based on an evaluation of undergraduate performance, standardized test scores, and references. The undergraduate course of study of each applicant is evaluated according to the requirements of the Physics Department.

### Required Curriculum

**Master of Science in Applied Physics**

Core Courses | ||

PHGN511 | MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS | 3.0 |

PHGN520 | QUANTUM MECHANICS I | 3.0 |

Select one of the following: | 3.0 | |

CLASSICAL MECHANICS I | ||

ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY I | ||

QUANTUM MECHANICS II | ||

STATISTICAL MECHANICS | ||

PH ELECT | Electives | 9.0 |

PHGN501 & PHGN502 | GRADUATE SEMINAR and GRADUATE SEMINAR ^{*} | 2.0 |

PHGN707 | Master's Thesis | 16.0 |

Total Semester Hrs | 36.0 |

* | Graduate Seminar: Each full-time MS graduate student will register for Graduate Seminar each semester for a total of 2 semester hours of credit cumulative over the degree. |

**Doctor of Philosophy in Physics**

Core Courses | ||

PHGN505 | CLASSICAL MECHANICS I | 3.0 |

PHGN507 | ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY I | 3.0 |

PHGN511 | MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS | 3.0 |

PHGN520 | QUANTUM MECHANICS I | 3.0 |

PHGN521 | QUANTUM MECHANICS II | 3.0 |

PHGN530 | STATISTICAL MECHANICS | 3.0 |

PHGN601 & PHGN602 | ADVANCED GRADUATE SEMINAR and ADVANCED GRADUATE SEMINAR ^{*} | 2.0 |

PH ELECT | Special topic area electives | 12.0 |

PHGN707 | Doctoral Thesis | 40.0 |

Total Semester Hrs | 72.0 |

* | Graduate Seminar: Each full-time PhD graduate student will register for Graduate Seminar each semester for a total of 2 semester hours of cumulative credit over the degree. |

### Fields of Research

**Applied Optics and Biophysics:** lasers, ultrafast optics, non-linear optics, laser-produced plasmas, micromachining, multiphoton microscopy, single-molecule microscopy, total internal reflection microscopy, biophysical mechanisms of collagen fibril degradation, novel imaging techniques.

**Subatomic:** low energy nuclear structure and astrophysics, applied nuclear physics, high-energy cosmic-ray and neutrino physics, neutrinoless double beta decay,

**Condensed Matter and Materials Physics:** photovoltaics, thermoelectrics, plasmonics, materials discovery, thin-film semiconductors, amorphous materials, excitonic materials, optoelectronic materials, nanostructures and quantum dots, self-assembled systems, organic and soft condensed matter, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Auger spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopies, atom probe tomography, first principles condensed materials theory**, **electronic structure, topological disorder.

**Quantum Physics:** quantum chaos, strongly-correlated states, quantum computing, quantum information, quantum simulation, quantum many body theory, quantum error correction, disorder in quantum materials, applied superconductivity, low-temperature physics, spintronics.

### Courses

**PHGN501. GRADUATE SEMINAR. 1.0 Semester Hr.**

(I) M.S. students will attend the weekly Physics Colloquium. Students will be responsible for presentations during this weekly seminar. See additional course registration instructions under Program Requirements above. 1 hour seminar; 1 semester hour.

**PHGN502. GRADUATE SEMINAR. 1.0 Semester Hr.**

(II) M.S. students will attend the weekly Physics Colloquium. Students will be responsible for presentations during this weekly seminar. See additional course registration instructions under Program Requirements above. 1 hour seminar; 1 semester hour.

**PHGN503. RESPONSIBLE CONDUCT OF RESEARCH. 1.0 Semester Hr.**

(II) This course introduces students to the various components of responsible research practices. Subjects covered move from issues related to professional rights and obligations through those related to collaboration, communication and the management of grants, to issues dealing with intellectual property. The course culminates with students writing an ethics essay based on a series of topics proposed by the course instructor. 1 hour lecture; 1 semester hour.

**PHGN504. RADIATION DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

Physical principles and methodology of the instrumentation used in the detection and measurement of ionizing radiation. Prerequisite: none. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN505. CLASSICAL MECHANICS I. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

(I) Review of Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formulations in the dynamics of particles and rigid bodies; kinetic theory; coupled oscillations and continuum mechanics; fluid mechanics. Prerequisite: PHGN350 or equivalent. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN507. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY I. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

(II) To provide a strong background in electromagnetic theory. Electrostatics, magnetostatics, dynamical Maxwell equations, wave phenomena. Prerequisite: PHGN462 or equivalent and PHGN511. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN511. MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

(I) Review of complex variable and finite and infinite-dimensional linear vector spaces. Sturm-Liouville problem, integral equations, computer algebra. Prerequisite: PHGN311 or equivalent. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN519. FUNDAMENTALS OF QUANTUM INFORMATION. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

This course serves as a broad introduction to quantum information science, open to students from many backgrounds. The basic structure of quantum mechanics (Hilbert spaces, operators, wavefunctions, entanglement, superposition, time evolution) is presented, as well as a number of important topics relevant to current quantum hardware (including oscillating fields, quantum noise, and more). Finally, we will survey the gate model of quantum computing, and study the critical subroutines which provide the promise of a quantum speedup in future quantum computers. Prerequisite: MATH332 (linear algebra) or an equivalent linear algebra course.

**PHGN520. QUANTUM MECHANICS I. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

(II) Schroedinger equation, uncertainty, change of representation, one-dimensonal problems, axioms for state vectors and operators, matrix mechanics, uncertainty relations, time-independent perturbation theory, time-dependent perturbations, harmonic oscillator, angular momentum; semiclassical methods, variational methods, two-level system, sudden and adiabatic changes, applications. Prerequisite: PHGN511 and PHGN320 or equivalent. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN521. QUANTUM MECHANICS II. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

(I) Review of angular momentum, central potentials and applications. Spin; rotations in quantum mechanics. Formal scattering theory, Born series, partial wave analysis. Addition of angular momenta, Wigner-Eckart theorem, selection rules, identical particles. Prerequisite: PHGN520. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN530. STATISTICAL MECHANICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

(I) Review of thermodynamics; equilibrium and stability; statistical operator and ensemblesl ideal systems; phase transitions; non-equilibrium systems. Prerequisite: PHGN341 or equivalent and PHGN520. Co-requisite: PHGN521. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN532. LOW TEMPERATURE MICROWAVE MEASUREMENTS FOR QUANTUM ENGINEERING. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

The goal of the course is to provide hands on training in high-frequency, low-temperature measurements which are requisite for quantum information applications. This course introduces the fundamentals of high-frequency measurements, the latest techniques for accuracy-enhanced automated microwave measurements, low-temperature measurement techniques, low noise measurements, and common devices used in quantum information. The course will have three modules. The first module, basics of electronic measurements, will include chip layout, power measurements, ground loop testing, impedance measurements, noise fundamentals, cable and device fabrication and care. The second module, high frequency measurements, will include measurements of basic scattering parameters, accuracy enhancement and calibration, transmission line, amplifier, and oscillator characterization including noise measurements. The third module, low-temperature measurements, will cover critical parameters for superconductors and Josephson junctions, measurements of superconducting resonators, characterization of low-temperature electronic elements including amplifiers. At the end of this course the students will know how to use network analyzers, spectrum analyzers, cryostats, the software Eagle for chip design, amplifiers, and filters. Prerequisite: EENG385, PHGN215, or equivalent Electronics Devices & Circuits course.

**PHGN535. INTERDISCIPLINARY SILICON PROCESSING LABORATORY. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

Equivalent with CBEN435,CBEN535,CHEN435,CHEN535,MLGN535,PHGN435,

(II) Explores the application of science and engineering principles to the fabrication and testing of microelectronic devices with emphasis on specific unit operations and interrelation among processing steps. Teams work together to fabricate, test, and optimize simple devices. Prerequisite: none. 1 hour lecture, 4 hours lab; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN542. SOLID STATE DEVICES AND PHOTOVOLTAIC APPLICATIONS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

(II) An overview of the physical principles involved in the characterization, and operation of solid state devices. Topics will include: semiconductor physics, electronic transport, recombination and generation, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, electrical contacts, p-n junction devices (e.g., LEDs, solar cells, lasers, particle detectors); other semiconductor devices (e.g., bipolar junction transistors and field effect transistors and capacitors). There will be emphasis on optical interactions and application to photovoltaic devices. Prerequisite: PHGN440 or equivalent. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN545. QUANTUM MANY-BODY PHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

This course offers an introduction to quantum many-body physics in a modern approach from the perspectives of quantum information science. Starting from the difference between classical and quantum correlations, this course introduces composite quantum systems and the concept of entanglement as the central theme in quantum many-body physics. A system of many spin-1/2s is then presented as the paradigmatic quantum many-body system, opening the realm of quantum phase transitions and quantum simulation experiments. Next, systems of non-interacting bosons or fermions are examined using the powerful canonical transformation. To understand what happens when particles interact, the well-known Hubbard model is brought in, together with its importance in quantum materials. Finally, topological ordered quantum matter is introduced and explained via the structure of quantum entanglement. The application of topological order to quantum computing will also be mentioned.

**PHGN550. NANOSCALE PHYSICS AND TECHNOLOGY. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

An introduction to the basic physics concepts involved in nanoscale phenomena, processing methods resulting in engineered nanostructures, and the design and operation of novel structures and devices which take advantage of nanoscale effects. Students will become familiar with interdisciplinary aspects of nanotechnology, as well as with current nanoscience developments described in the literature. Prerequisites: PHGN320, PHGN341, co-requisite: PHGN462. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN566. MODERN OPTICAL ENGINEERING. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

Provides students with a comprehensive working knowledge of optical system design that is sufficient to address optical problems found in their respective disciplines. Topics include paraxial optics, imaging, aberration analysis, use of commercial ray tracing and optimazation, diffraction, linear systems and optical transfer functions, detectors, and optical system examples. Prerequisite: PHGN462. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN570. FOURIER AND PHYSICAL OPTICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

This course addresses the propagation of light through optical systems. Diffraction theory is developed to show how 2D Fourier transforms and linear systems theory can be applied to imaging systems. Analytic and numerical Fourier and microscopes, spectrometers and holographic imaging. They are also applied to temporal propagation in ultrafast optics. Prerequisite: PHGN462 or equivalent. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN585. NONLINEAR OPTICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

An exploration of the nonlinear response of a medium (semiclassical and quantum descriptions) and nonlinear wave mixing and propagation. Analytic and numeric techniques to treat nonlinear dynamics are developed. Applications to devices and modern research areas are discussed, including harmonic and parametric wave modulation, phase conjugation, electro-optic modulation. Prerequiste: PHGN462 or equivalent, PHGN520. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN590. NUCLEAR REACTOR PHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

Bridges the gap between courses in fundamental nuclear physics and the practice of electrical power production using nuclear reactors. Review of nuclear constituents, forces, structure, energetics, decay and reactions; interaction of radiation with matter, detection of radiation; nuclear cross sections, neutron induced reactions including scattering, absorption, and fission; neutron diffusion, multiplication, criticality; simple reactor geometries and compositions; nuclear reactor kinetics and control; modeling and simulation of reactors. Prerequisite: PHGN422.

**PHGN598. SPECIAL TOPICS. 6.0 Semester Hrs.**

(I, II, S) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once, but no more than twice for the same course content. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit: 0 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

**PHGN599. INDEPENDENT STUDY. 0.5-6 Semester Hr.**

(I, II, S) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: Independent Study form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit: 0.5 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different topics/experience and maximums vary by department. Contact the Department for credit limits toward the degree.

**PHGN601. ADVANCED GRADUATE SEMINAR. 1.0 Semester Hr.**

(I) Ph.D. students will attend the weekly Physics Colloquium. Students will be responsible for presentations during this weekly seminar. See additional course registration instructions under Program Requirements above. 1 hour seminar; 1 semester hour.

**PHGN602. ADVANCED GRADUATE SEMINAR. 1.0 Semester Hr.**

(II) Ph.D. students will attend the weekly Physics Colloquium. Students will be responsible for presentations during this weekly seminar. See additional course registration instructions under Program Requirements above. 1 hour seminar; 1 semester hour.

**PHGN608. ELECTROMAGNETIC THEORY II. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

Spherical, cylindrical, and guided waves; relativistic 4-dimensional formulation of electromagnetic theory. Prerequisite: PHGN507. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours. Offered on demand.

**PHGN612. MATHEMATICAL PHYSICS II. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

Continuation of PHGN511. Prerequisite: none. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours. Offered on demand.

**PHGN623. NUCLEAR STRUCTURE AND REACTIONS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

The fundamental physics principles and quantum mechanical models and methods underlying nuclear structure, transitions, and scattering reactions. Prerequisite: PHGN521. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours. Offered on demand.

**PHGN624. NUCLEAR ASTROPHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

The physical principles and research methods used to understand nucleosynthesis and energy generation in the universe. Prerequisite: none. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours. Offered on demand.

**PHGN641. ADVANCED CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS. 3.0 Semester Hrs.**

Provides working graduate-level knowledge of applications of solid state physics and important models to crystalline and non-crystalline systems in two and three dimensions. Review of transport by Bloch electrons; computation, interpretation of band structures. Interacting electron gas and overview of density functional theory. Quantum theory of optical properties of condensed systems; Kramers-Kronig analysis, sum rules, spectroscopies. Response and correlation functions. Theoretical models for metal-insulator and localization transitions in 1, 2, 3 dimensions (e.g., Mott, Hubbard, Anderson, Peierls distortion). Boltzmann equation. Introduction to magnetism; spin waves. Phenomenology of soft condensed matter: order parameters, free energies. Conventional superconductivity. Prerequisites: PHGN440 or equivalent, PHGN520, PHGN530. 3 hours lecture; 3 semester hours.

**PHGN698. SPECIAL TOPICS. 6.0 Semester Hrs.**

(I, II, S) Pilot course or special topics course. Topics chosen from special interests of instructor(s) and student(s). Usually the course is offered only once, but no more than twice for the same course content. Prerequisite: none. Variable credit: 0 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different titles.

**PHGN699. INDEPENDENT STUDY. 0.5-6 Semester Hr.**

(I, II, S) Individual research or special problem projects supervised by a faculty member, also, when a student and instructor agree on a subject matter, content, and credit hours. Prerequisite: Independent Study form must be completed and submitted to the Registrar. Variable credit: 0.5 to 6 credit hours. Repeatable for credit under different topics/experience and maximums vary by department. Contact the Department for credit limits toward the degree.

**PHGN707. GRADUATE THESIS / DISSERTATION RESEARCH CREDIT. 1-15 Semester Hr.**

(I, II, S) Research credit hours required for completion of a Masters-level thesis or Doctoral dissertation. Research must be carried out under the direct supervision of the student's faculty advisor. Variable class and semester hours. Repeatable for credit.